Views: 21 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-12-15 Origin: Site
The structure of industrial automation explains the operation at all levels. These include sensor level, automation control level (unit, unit, process control), supervision level and enterprise level. The pyramid structure shows that when you prompt, the information is aggregated and dissolved. This means that we will get the details of specific variables at the bottom. Industrial automation does not mean that all levels are as automated as enterprise automation.
The sensor level is also called the processing layer. It uses sensors and actuators to obtain the values of process variables continuously or periodically. These are the eyes and arms of industrial processes. Some of these instruments include pneumatic instruments, intelligent instruments, etc.
PC is used for automation control layer or control layer/ PLC / DCS and other industrial control equipment. This layer uses various embedded processors and PID algorithms to control the process.
The supervisory level or SCADA layer obtains a large amount of channel information and stores the data in the system database. It obtains data from various control devices and displays it on HMI (man-machine interface). It also issues alarms to indicate the level of process and control variables. It uses special software to obtain data and communication protocols to interact with field devices.
Enterprise level implementation planning, order and sales, product planning and other tasks.
Types of industrial automation
According to the flexibility and integration of manufacturing process, automation system is divided into four basic types. These are described below.
1. Fixed automation
In this sequence of operations to be performed, it is fixed by device configuration. It is used for mass production and special equipment. Examples of this automation system are automatic assembly lines, distillation processes, machine conveyor lines.
2. Programmable Automation
Here, the operation sequence can be changed by changing the program. The operation sequence varies accord
3. Flexible automation
This is an extension of programmable automation. This provides greater flexibility in dealing with product design differences. If you want to change the sequence of the process, the operator can issue commands in the form of codes in a computer program. Lower-level equipment receives on-site operation instructions without losing production time. This type of automation is used to manufacture multifunctional CNC machine tools, automatic guided vehicles, etc.
4. Comprehensive automation
In this type, the entire system is fully automatic under computer control. From the design process to scheduling, the entire system is fully automated. Even these devices are handled by robots. This system is used in a computer integrated manufacturing system.
Industrial automation equipment
Sensors and actuators
The sensor senses various process variables and converts them into electrical or optical signals. These sensors include temperature, pressure, speed, flow and other actuators that convert electrical signals into mechanical means to gain control of the process. These include relays, magnets, servo motors, etc. Some sensors and actuators have the ability to communicate with the industrial field communication bus under the smart device.
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is also called an industrial computer, which can be programmed to perform certain control functions. It is composed of CPU or processor, I/O modules (including analog and digital), used to connect various input/output devices and relay modules. These modules can be fixed or integrated modules to expand modules based on available inputs
Like PLC, traditional PC is used to control the process online or change the program. The PLC has special software to compile control strategies.
HMI (Human Machine Interface)
The man-machine interface provides functions such as displaying information on computer screens and other monitors, recording the results in a database, and issuing alarm signals. It uses technologies such as SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and other vision-based technologies.
In the industry, many sensors, actuators, control PCs and other control devices are geographically distributed and interact through multiple data buses. There are three types of buses used in industrial automation, namely factory buses, process buses and field buses.